Concurrency with Python: Actor Models

Table of Contents


Actors are containers of state communicating with each other via message passing. Based on a received message, actors can choose to:

  • Send messages to other actors
  • Create new actors
  • Alter how it treats new messages it receives

And that’s it! State exists, yet remains encapsulated, explicit, and observable, among other benefits.

Actors are my favorite concurrency model, since they don’t just make simple things easy, but beautiful as well. Like separating identity from state, the concurrency advantages of using actors stem from the property guarantees baked into actor implementations, which form an unassuming yet unassailable moat in terms of concurrency model adoption.

I also love actor models for a number of other reasons as well:

You may not want to use actor model concurrency if:

  • Your business logic is inherently sequential: Lengthy and long-lived dependency chains may not support actors very well, because handling logic outside the individual actor (e.g. with multi-stage transactions) is not the actor model’s strong suit.

  • You have an existing codebase that does not use actor models: Interoperability between actor-model based frameworks and object-oriented frameworks may require an additional interface, like a message queue, if the system design and consequences like workload profile are to remain clear. Hence, actor-model based systems may be best implemented as a discrete service, and may otherwise induce a choice between object-oriented programming and actor-model programming.

  • You’re focused on optimizing your system: Rich Hickey mentions in the Clojure spec about state that since actors make so few assumptions about the world, the concurrency model is fairly inflexible to optimization. One example he gives is how actors cannot exploit being in the same process, e.g. by having multiple threads share the same immutable data structure. In this sense, actor models may be best used in arenas where any penalties due to lack of optimization can be amortized, such as in a data request generation layer, where you may piece together a request for data before flushing the request through cffi.

Actor Models in Python

There’s a number of different ways you can apply actors in Python:

  • pykka: A partial port of akka. Not recommended because actor supervision/linking and communicating with actors through network are not supported, messages are mutable, and a lack of continued development.

  • thespian: A well-maintained, fully featured actor library, that runs on Linux. The downsides of this library may include a lack of actor-based tooling like OTP libraries, a non-intuitive error model, and a lack of user adoption within the Python community.

  • erlport: Erlang-based interoperablity library to call Python code using Erlang’s native implemented functions, or NIFs. The actors are specified on the Erlang side, and hence remains outside the scope of this blog post.

  • A bespoke implementation of threadless actors can be done using monads. This is not recommended because many of the actor model primitives require implementation, and do not take advantage of Python’s concurrent libraries.

This tutorial uses thespian.

Message Passing

Credit to the thespian documentation for inspiring many of these examples.

Receiving Messages

To create an actor, define an actor using thespian.actors.Actor:

from thespian.actors import Actor

class Hello(Actor):
    def receiveMessage(self, message, sender):
        self.send(sender, "Hello, World!")

Then, create an instance of thespian.actors.ActorSystem and pipe a message to your actor:

from thespian.actors import ActorSystem

hello = ActorSystem().createActor(Hello)
print(ActorSystem().ask(hello, 'hi', 1))

You should see:

Hello, World!

Printed to the console.

Linking Processes

Actors communicate with other actors via messages. For example, the “hello” actor can be updated to create a “your_name” actor to print “Hello $YOUR_NAME”:

from thespian.actors import Actor

class Hello(Actor):
    def receiveMessage(self, message, sender):
        if message.startswith("Hello! My name is"):
            your_name = self.createActor(YourName)
            your_name_msg = (sender, "Hello, ", message)
            self.send(your_name, your_name_msg)

class YourName(Actor):
    def receiveMessage(self, message, sender):
        if isinstance(message, tuple):
            orig_sender, pre_hello, orig_message = message
            orig_name = orig_message.lstrip("Hello! My name is ")
            self.send(orig_sender, pre_hello + orig_name)

These two actors result in the following output in the IPython REPL:

In [2]: from thespian.actors import ActorSystem

In [3]: ActorSystem()
Out[3]: <thespian.actors.ActorSystem at 0x7f74aae54160>

In [4]: hello = ActorSystem().createActor(Hello)

In [5]: ActorSystem().ask(hello, "Hello! My name is Ying")
Out[5]: 'Hello, Ying'

thespian also supports special system messages of type thespian.actors.ActorSystemMessage. One of these may be thespian.actors.ActorExitRequest. This can be used in order to make your actor system idempotent under happy path conditions:

from thespian.actors import Actor
from thespian.actors import ActorExitRequest

class Hello(Actor):
    def receiveMessage(self, message, sender):
        # Filter out `ChildExitedRequest` system messages.
        if (
            isinstance(message, str) and
            message.startswith("Hello! My name is")
            your_name = self.createActor(YourName)
            your_name_msg = (sender, "Hello, ", message)
            self.send(your_name, your_name_msg)
            # Terminate own process.
            self.send(self.myAddress, ActorExitRequest())

class YourName(Actor):
    def receiveMessage(self, message, sender):
        if isinstance(message, tuple):
            orig_sender, pre_hello, orig_message = message
            orig_name = orig_message.lstrip("Hello! My name is ")
            self.send(orig_sender, pre_hello + orig_name)
            # Terminate own process.
            self.send(self.myAddress, ActorExitRequest())

if __name__=='__main__':
    from thespian.actors import ActorSystem
    system = ActorSystem()
    hello = system.createActor(Hello)
    print(system.ask(hello, "Hello! My name is Ying"))
    # Shutdown ActorSystem instance.

It’s easy to see how properties like idempotency or atomicity, while not intrinsic to actor-model based programming, can be easily implemented within an actor-model based system, since there is only one interface, receiveMessage(), communicating with the outside world.

Stateful Actors

Since actors are containers of state, they can change their response based on both the messages received as well as their internal state. For example, an actor-based counter may look something like this:

from thespian.actors import Actor

class Counter(Actor):
    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        self.count = 0
        super().__init__(*args, **kwargs)

    def receiveMessage(self, message, sender):
        if (
            isinstance(message, str) and
            message == "What's my count?"
            msg = "Your count is " + str(self.count)
            self.count += 1
            self.send(sender, msg)

Querying a freshly instantiated Counter actor instance may look something like this:

In [3]: from thespian.actors import ActorSystem

In [4]: counter = ActorSystem().createActor(Counter)

In [5]: ActorSystem().ask(counter, "What's my count?")
Out[5]: 'Your count is 0'

In [6]: ActorSystem().ask(counter, "What's my count?")
Out[6]: 'Your count is 1'

In [7]: ActorSystem().ask(counter, "What's my count?")
Out[7]: 'Your count is 2'

We send the same message but get a different response each time, because the actor keeps track of its state. At the same time, the state is only made visible to the external world through messages. State mutation takes place entirely within the actor, which means any other messages querying actor state will buffer until the mutation is complete, or fails and rolls back. Incomplete and invalid state is never exposed to the world outside the actor instance.

Alan Kay mentioned this in a mailing list message as his definition of object-oriented programming:

OOP to me means only messaging, local retention, and protection and hiding of state-process, and extreme late-binding of all things.

Effective Parallelization

thespian’s model of concurrency lies in the use of different thespian.actors.ActorSystem implementations.

The naive thespian.actors.ActorSystem is not fully concurrent, as it utilizes thespian.system.simpleSystemBase:

In [6]: ActorSystem()._systemBase
Out[6]: <thespian.system.simpleSystemBase.ActorSystemBase at 0x10474bc88>

All actors registered with this system run on a single thread, with reentrant locks blocking access from other actors from sending or receiving messages. This can be seen in simpleSystemBase.ActorSystemBase.ask, the method to send a message to an actor:

def ask(self, anActor, msg, timeout):
    sender = self.actorRegistry['System:ExternalRequester']
    with self._private_lock: # Instance of threading.RLock
    return self.listen(timeout)

In order to use something a bit more parallel, and for deploying on general Python environments, try using thespian.actors.ActorSystem('multiprocQueueBase'):

In [1]: from thespian.actors import ActorSystem

In [2]: ActorSystem('multiprocQueueBase')._systemBase
Out[2]: <thespian.system.multiprocQueueBase.ActorSystemBase at 0x109fcbfd0>

If you wish to use multiprocTCPBase or multiprocUDPBase, use Linux as the Python socket module method calls for gethostname() and getaddrinfo() is broken on macOS, as detailed by BPO-29705 and BPO-35164.

An easy way to get started with a fully-fledged Python environment on Debian is to use Docker and continuumio/anaconda3:latest as a virtualization layer. You can create this environment in Docker by running:

docker pull continuumio/anaconda3
docker run -i -d continuumio/anaconda3:latest
docker exec -it $CONTAINER_NAME bash

Also note that Windows 10 Home does not come with a hypervisor, which blocks installation of Docker. Consider blowing away Windows and using Linux on bare metal.

Note that actor systems besides the base may create processes that persist outside the orchestrating Python process. Use the base ActorSystem() instantiation, as opposed to ActorSystem('multiprocTCPBase'), for best results. In order to shutdown actor systems from an orchestrating process, wrap ActorSystem().shutdown() in a try/except/finally clause.

Aside from these concerns, the beauty of the actor model shines through. It doesn’t care about the concurrency model. You can swap out the concurrency model by swapping out the underlying ActorSystem() implementation, and as long as it implements .ask() properly, the actor will be able to communicate with the system. If the actor cannot handle a message for some reason, it will simply buffer in a mailbox for the actor to handle later. Hence, asynchronicity comes out of the box with actors.

Reactive Design Patterns

Like object-oriented programming, actor models also have their own design patterns. Where object-oriented programming may have object-oriented design patterns, such as those described in the “Gang of Four” book on design patterns, actor-model based programming has reactive design patterns, some of which are described in “Reactive Design Patterns”, available online.

Some of these include:

  • The Error/Kernel Pattern: Within a supervision tree, keep actions with higher failure probabilities in the leaf/child nodes, and keep important application state and actions in parent nodes. One benefit of this practice is that leaf nodes can be much more cheaply restarted than parent nodes, which keeps more of the application running at all times.

  • The Let-It-Crash Pattern: Significantly trim down the failure model by delegating failure handling to a supervisor process rather than handling it within a process. One way this pattern may help software engineers is in reducing technical debt by rendering some compatibility layers wholly unnecessary.

  • The Circuit Breaker Pattern: Isolate failures from component to component by wrapping them in monitoring and handling logic to avoid calls likely to result in timeouts or high latencies. This prevents failures from propagating throughout an entire system, and localizes errors for easier troubleshooting.


Actor models are a highly flexible and robust programming model if used and implemented correctly. If your programming language supports state, you can implement actor models and actor-based frameworks and libraries.

The biggest downside of actor models is in the need to think and practice at scale even when there is no scale to worry about. Actor libraries and frameworks built on on object-oriented programming languages appear contrived, deviant, and unnecessary to programmers when the problems actors solve aren’t readily apparent.

This problem is made more difficult when actors are so powerful, people and organizations hide the fact they use it as a competitive advantage. Thankfully, with the birth of newer actor-model based languages like Elixir, and seriously successful business cases of actor models like WhatsApp, actors are getting a lot more attention and consideration in enterprise use.

(Correction on 05/20/2019): The original version of this blog post misspelled Rich Hickey’s name as “Rich Hickley”; this has been updated.

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